The term “periodont” means all tissues surrounding the teeth (dentures, periodontal ligaments, dental cement and alveolar bone), thus a periodontist takes care of the treatment and prophylaxis of these tissues. The most common periodontal diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis. The main reasons of these diseases are the accumulation of calculus around the teeth. Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums. The most common manifesting symptoms are swelling and bleeding from the gums. If left untreated, the infection of gingivitis long-term affects not only the gums, but also tissues around the tooth – the ligament and the bone. This way periodontitis starts.
Untreated periodontitis diseases may cause not only resorption of alveolar bone and full loss of teeth, but also negatively affect the whole body (e.g. cardiovascular system, endocrinal system). Therefore damaged gums must be treated as soon as possible.
The main goal of treatment is to eliminate an inflammation. This may be done in several ways:
- To make a professional oral hygiene. In the event of bigger inflammation, the procedures are repeated every 1-3 weeks. This way early-stage inflammatory processes are most often stopped.
- To apply conservative treatment. If necessary, to prescribe antibiotics, make curettage (the procedure when the root surface under the gums is cleaned).
- To apply surgical treatment. Most often patch surgeries are performed. During their time the excess of inflamed gums is removed and granulations are diligently cleaned. Restoration of the bone may be necessary.
In order to avoid re-emergence of the disease, the patient should visit an oral hygienist at least 1-3 months, and the periodontist – every 3-6 months.